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Micro Laser Assisted Machining (µ-LAM) of Ceramics & Semiconductors

                           





Project Time Frame: January 2006 – April 2007 

Material:(1) (100) Single Crystal Silicon

          (2) 4H Single Crystal Silicon Carbide (SiC)        

Project Aim: * To preferentially heat and soften the workpiece material

                  * To enhance the ductile response and reduce the brittleness of the material
             * To minimize diamond tool wear

Project Description:
Advanced ceramics and semiconductors such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) are increasingly being used for industrial applications as it is hard, strong, inert, and light weight. This combination of properties makes it an ideal candidate for tribological, semiconductor, MEMS and optoelectronic applications respectively. Manufacturing SiC without causing surface and subsurface damage is extremely challenging due to its high hardness, brittle characteristics and poor machinability. Often times, severe fracture can result when trying to achieve high material removal rates when machining ceramics and semiconductors due to their low fracture toughness. In past research, it has been proven that ductile regime machining of SiC is possible due to the high pressure phase transformation (HPPT) occurring in the material caused by the high compressive and shear stresses induced by the single point diamond tool tip. The hardness of SiC at room temperature is around 26 GPa. It decreases with an increase in temperature. To further augment the ductile response of the machined material, traditional scratch/single point diamond turning tests are coupled with a micro-laser assisted machining (µ-LAM) technique. Micro Laser Assisted Machining, (μ-LAM), has the potential to positively impact, i.e., reduce the hardness and lessen the brittle fracture behavior, of semiconductors and ceramics during manufacture.  The μ-LAM process has been used to preferentially heat and thermally soften SiC leading to enhanced ductility (plastic deformation) and ease of machining of these nominally brittle materials.  The μ-LAM process was evaluated for its ability to also provide for reduced fracture damage during machining, as a result of reduced brittleness, due to the laser heating and thermal softening effect.  The μ-LAM process of SiC was tested, evaluated and compared to the work on Si which has been previously done in our research. One unique feature of μ-LAM is the use of diamond tooling, which is transparent to the laser beam; thus the laser beam is coupled directly to the diamond stylus and delivered through the diamond directly to the cutting edge where it can be of maximum benefit.
















Project in Detail: View


Related Publications:

  1. "The Effects of Laser Heating on the Material Removal Process in Si and SiC Nanomachining” Proceedings of 2011 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, Georgia, Atlanta, USA, January 2011. View
  2. "The Effects of Laser Heating on the Ductile to Brittle Transition of Silicon Carbide”, American Society for Precision Engineers (ASPE) 25th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, November 2010. 
    View
  3. "The Effect of Laser Heating on the Ductile to Brittle Transition of Silicon”, The 5th International Conference on MicroManufacturing (ICOMM/4M), Wisconsin, USA, 2010. 
    View
  4. Force Analysis, Mechanical Energy and Laser Heating Evaluation of Scratch Tests on Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) in Micro-Laser Assisted Machining (μ-LAM) Process”, 2009, Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Indiana, USA. 
      
  5. "Micro-Laser Assisted Machining (μ-LAM): Scratch Tests on 4H-SiC” Proceedings of 2009 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2009. View
  6. “Pressure and Temperature Effects in Micro-Laser Assisted Machining (µ-LAM) of Silicon Carbide”, North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC), USA, 2009.    
  7. “Scratch Tests on 4H-SiC Using Micro Laser Assisted Machining (μ-LAM) System” Advance Laser Applications Conference and Exposition, San Jose, California, USA, 2009. 
Related Presentations:

  1. Force Analysis, Mechanical Energy and Laser Heating Evaluation of Scratch Tests on Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) in Micro-Laser Assisted Machining (μ-LAM) Process”, 2009, Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Indiana, USA.  
  2. “Scratch Tests on 4H-SiC Using Micro Laser Assisted Machining (μ-LAM) System” Advance Laser Applications Conference      and Exposition, San Jose, California, USA, 2009. 
  3. “Pressure and Temperature Effects in Micro-Laser Assisted Machining (µ-LAM) of Silicon Carbide”, North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC), USA, 2009.    
  4. "The Effect of Laser Heating on the Ductile to Brittle Transition of Silicon”, The 5th International Conference on MicroManufacturing (ICOMM/4M), Wisconsin, USA, 2010. 
    View

Material Data Sheet: View

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